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Tšebeliso ea graphene ke efe?Linyeoe tse peli tsa kopo li u lumella ho utloisisa tebello ea ts'ebeliso ea graphene

Ka 2010, Geim le Novoselov ba ile ba hapa Khau ea Nobel ea fisiks bakeng sa mosebetsi oa bona ka graphene.Khau ena e siile maikutlo a tebileng ho batho ba bangata.Ntle le moo, ha se sesebelisoa se seng le se seng sa liteko tsa Moputso oa Nobel se tloaelehileng joalo ka teipi e khomarelang, mme ha se ntho e 'ngoe le e 'ngoe ea lipatlisiso e makatsang ebile e bonolo ho e utloisisa joalo ka "crystal-dimensional crystal" graphene.Mosebetsi oa 2004 o ka fanoa ka 2010, e leng ntho e sa tloaelehang tlalehong ea Moputso oa Nobel lilemong tsa morao tjena.

Graphene ke mofuta oa ntho e nang le learo le le leng la liathomo tsa khabone tse hlophisitsoeng hantle ho etsa lehetla la mahe a linotši la mahlakore a mabeli.Joalo ka taemane, graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes le amorphous carbon, ke ntho (ntho e bonolo) e entsoeng ka likarolo tsa carbon.Joalokaha ho bontšitsoe setšoantšong se ka tlase, li- fullerenes le carbon nanotubes li ka bonoa li phuthiloe ka tsela e itseng ho tloha mothating o le mong oa graphene, o kentsoeng ke lihlopha tse ngata tsa graphene.Patlisiso ea theory mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea graphene ho hlalosa thepa ea lintho tse fapaneng tsa carbon (graphite, carbon nanotubes le graphene) e nkile lilemo tse ka bang 60, empa ka kakaretso ho lumeloa hore lisebelisoa tse joalo tsa mahlakore a mabeli li thata ho ba teng li le mong. e khomaretsoe feela holim'a karolo e ka holimo ea likarolo tse tharo kapa lintho tse ka hare tse kang graphite.E bile ka 2004 moo Andre Geim le seithuti sa hae Konstantin Novoselov ba ileng ba amoha karolo e le 'ngoe ea graphene ho graphite ka liteko tseo lipatlisiso tsa graphene li ileng tsa fihlela nts'etsopele e ncha.

Ka bobeli fullerene (ka ho le letšehali) le carbon nanotube (bohareng) li ka nkoa e le tse phuthoang ke lesela le le leng la graphene ka tsela e itseng, ha graphite (ka ho le letona) e pakiloe ke lihlopha tse ngata tsa graphene ka ho hokahanya ha matla a van der Waals.

Matsatsing ana, graphene e ka fumanoa ka litsela tse ngata, 'me mekhoa e fapaneng e na le melemo le mathata a eona.Geim le Novoselov ba ile ba fumana graphene ka tsela e bonolo.Ba sebelisa theipi e bonaletsang e fumanehang lisuphamaketeng, ba ile ba hlobolisa graphene, letlapa la graphite le nang le lera le le leng feela la liathomo tsa khabone, ho tloha sekotoaneng sa pyrolytic graphite ea boemo bo holimo.Sena se loketse, empa taolo ha e ntle hakaalo, 'me graphene e nang le boholo bo ka tlaase ho 100 microns (karolo ea leshome ea millimeter) e ka fumanoa feela, e ka sebelisetsoang liteko, empa ho thata ho e sebelisa bakeng sa ho sebetsa. lits'ebetso.Mouoane oa lik'hemik'hale o ka holisa lisampole tsa graphene ka boholo ba lisentimitara tse mashome holim'a tšepe.Le hoja sebaka se nang le maikutlo a tsitsitseng e le li-microns tse 100 feela [3,4], se 'nile sa loketse litlhoko tsa tlhahiso ea likopo tse ling.Mokhoa o mong o tloaelehileng ke ho futhumatsa silicon carbide (SIC) kristale ho feta 1100 ℃ ka vacuum, e le hore liathomo tsa silicon tse haufi le bokaholimo li fetoha mouoane, 'me liathomo tse setseng tsa k'habone li hlophisoe, tse ka fumanang lisampole tsa graphene tse nang le thepa e ntle.

Graphene ke thepa e ncha e nang le thepa e ikhethang: motlakase oa eona o motle joaloka koporo, 'me mocheso oa oona o molemo ho feta ntho leha e le efe e tsejoang.E hlakile haholo.Ke karolo e nyane feela (2.3%) ea leseli le emeng le otlolohileng le tla amoheloa ke graphene, 'me boholo ba leseli le tla feta.E teteaneng hoo esita le liathomo tsa helium (limolek'hule tse nyenyane ka ho fetisisa tsa khase) li ke keng tsa feta.Lintho tsena tsa boselamose ha li futsoe ka kotloloho ho tsoa ho graphite, empa ho tsoa ho quantum mechanics.Lintho tsa eona tse ikhethang tsa motlakase le tsa optical li etsa qeto ea hore e na le menyetla e pharaletseng ea ts'ebeliso.

Le hoja graphene e hlahile ka nako e ka tlaase ho lilemo tse leshome feela, e bontšitse lisebelisoa tse ngata tsa tekheniki, e leng ntho e sa tloaelehang haholo mafapheng a fisiks le saense ea lintho tse bonahalang.Ho nka lilemo tse fetang leshome kapa esita le mashome a lilemo hore thepa e akaretsang e tlohe laboratoring ho ea bophelong ba sebele.Tšebeliso ea graphene ke efe?A re hlahlobeng mehlala e ’meli.

Elektrode e bonaletsang e bonolo
Lisebelisoa tse ngata tsa motlakase, lisebelisoa tsa conductive tse bonaletsang li hloka ho sebelisoa e le li-electrode.Lioache tsa elektroniki, li-calculator, lithelevishene, lipontšo tsa kristale ea metsi, li-touchscreens, liphanele tsa letsatsi le lisebelisoa tse ling tse ngata li ke ke tsa siea boteng ba li-electrode tse bonaletsang.Electrode ea setso e bonaletsang e sebelisa indium tin oxide (ITO).Ka lebaka la theko e phahameng le phepelo e fokolang ea indium, thepa e brittle le ho hloka ho feto-fetoha ha maemo, 'me electrode e hloka ho kenngoa karolong e bohareng ea vacuum,' me litšenyehelo li batla li phahame.Ka nako e telele, bo-rasaense ba 'nile ba leka ho fumana sebaka sa eona.Ntle le litlhoko tsa ponaletso, conductivity e ntle le ho itokisa habonolo, haeba ho feto-fetoha ha thepa ka boeona ho le molemo, ho tla ba ho loketseng ho etsa "pampiri ea elektronike" kapa lisebelisoa tse ling tse phuthehang.Ka hona, ho tenyetseha le hona ke ntlha ea bohlokoa haholo.Graphene ke thepa e joalo, e loketseng haholo li-electrode tse pepeneneng.

Bafuputsi ba Samsung le Univesithi ea Chengjunguan ea Korea Boroa ba ile ba fumana graphene e bolelele ba lisenthimithara tse 30 ka mouoane oa lik'hemik'hale 'me ba e fetisetsa filiming ea 188 micron polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ho hlahisa graphene based touch screen [4].Joalokaha ho bontšitsoe setšoantšong se ka tlase, graphene e hōlileng holim'a foil ea koporo e qala ho kopanngoa le theipi ea ho hlobolisa mocheso (karolo e hlakileng e putsoa), ebe foil ea koporo e qhibiliha ka mokhoa oa lik'hemik'hale, 'me qetellong graphene e fetisetsoa filiming ea PET ka ho futhumatsa. .

Lisebelisoa tse ncha tsa ho kenya lifoto tsa motlakase
Graphene e na le thepa e ikhethang haholo ea optical.Leha ho na le lera le le leng feela la liathomo, le khona ho monya 2.3% ea khanya e hlahisoang karolong eohle ea bolelele ba maqhubu ho tloha khanyeng e bonahalang ho ea ho infrared.Nomoro ena ha e amane le lisebelisoa tse ling tsa graphene 'me e khethoa ke quantum electrodynamics [6].Leseli le nkiloeng le tla lebisa molokong oa bajari (li-electrone le likoti).Ho hlahisa le ho tsamaisa bajari ba graphene ba fapane haholo le ba li-semiconductors tsa setso.Sena se etsa hore graphene e be e loketseng haholo bakeng sa lisebelisoa tsa induction tsa ultrafast photoelectric.Ho hakanngoa hore lisebelisoa tse joalo tsa induction tsa photoelectric li ka sebetsa ka lebelo la 500ghz.Haeba e sebelisoa bakeng sa phetiso ea matšoao, e ka fetisa li-zero tse limilione tse likete tse 500 kapa tse ling ka motsotsoana, 'me ea phethela phetiso ea litaba tsa li-disc tsa Blu ray tse peli ka motsotsoana o le mong.

Litsebi tsa IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center United States li sebelisitse graphene ho etsa lisebelisoa tsa ho kenya lifoto tsa motlakase tse ka sebetsang ka 10GHz frequency [8].Taba ea pele, li-flakes tsa graphene li ne li lokisoa holim'a silicon substrate e koahetsoeng ka silika e teteaneng ea 300 nm ka "tape tape method", ebe li-electrode tsa khauta tsa palladium kapa titanium tse nang le nako ea 1 micron le bophara ba 250 nm li entsoe ho eona.Ka tsela ena, ho fumanoa sesebelisoa sa graphene se thehiloeng ho photoelectric.

Setšoantšo sa schematic sa lisebelisoa tsa graphene photoelectric induction le linepe tsa electron microscope (SEM) tsa lisampole tsa sebele.Mohala o motšo o motšo setšoantšong o lumellana le li-micron tse 5, 'me sebaka se pakeng tsa mela ea tšepe ke micron e le' ngoe.

Ka liteko, bafuputsi ba fumane hore mochine ona oa tšepe oa graphene metal structure photoelectric induction device o ka finyella lebelo la ho sebetsa la 16ghz ka ho fetisisa, 'me o ka sebetsa ka lebelo le phahameng ho tloha ho 300 nm (haufi le ultraviolet) ho isa ho 6 microns (infrared), ha a ntse a sebetsa ka lebelo le phahameng. "Tube" ea setso ea "photoelectric induction" ha e khone ho arabela khanya ea infrared ka bolelele bo bolelele.Maqhubu a ts'ebetso ea lisebelisoa tsa induction tsa graphene photoelectric e ntse e na le sebaka se setle sa ntlafatso.Ts'ebetso ea eona e phahameng e etsa hore e be le menyetla e mengata ea ts'ebeliso, ho kenyelletsa le puisano, taolo e hole le ho beha leihlo tikoloho.

Joalo ka thepa e ncha e nang le thepa e ikhethang, lipatlisiso mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea graphene li ntse li hlaha ka mor'a tse ling.Ho thata ho rona ho li bala mona.Nakong e tlang, ho ka 'na ha e-ba le li-tubes tse entsoeng ka graphene, li-switches tsa molek'hule tse entsoeng ka graphene le li-molecular detectors tse entsoeng ka graphene bophelong ba letsatsi le letsatsi ... Graphene e tsoang ka laboratoring butle-butle e tla khanya bophelong ba letsatsi le letsatsi.

Re ka lebella hore palo e kholo ea lihlahisoa tsa elektronike tse sebelisang graphene li tla hlaha haufinyane.Nahana hore na ho ka ba monate hakae haeba li-smartphone le li-netbook tsa rona li ka phuthoa, tsa tlamelloa litsebeng tsa rona, tsa kenngoa ka lipokothong tsa rona, kapa tsa thateloa matsohong a rona ha li sa sebelisoe!


Nako ea poso: Mar-09-2022